Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a procedure performed during cardiac catheterization that can accurately measure coronary blood flow and the pressure gradient across a blockage. The measurement of FFR helps guide management of intermediate blockages in the coronary arteries.
Intracoronary stenting is a procedure in which a small wire-mesh tube usually made of cobalt chromium in implanted in the coronary artery to treat significant blockages. Both bare metal and drug eluting/medicated stents are available for use in specific clinical situations.
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a medical imaging methodology using a specially designed catheter with a miniaturized ultrasound probe attached to the distal end of the catheter. IVUS is used in the coronary artery to determine the amount of atheromatous plaque and helps guide optimal therapy.
Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD’s) help treat patients at high risk for sudden cardiac death. Implanted through a small incision over the left side of the chest, ICD’s use electrical discharges or shocks to help terminate life threatening cardiac arrhythmias.
Permanent pacemakers are indicated for patients with abnormally slow cardiac rhythms and high-grade heart blocks. In addition to their pacing functions, pacemakers also help synchronize the pumping actions of the heart resulting in higher pump efficiency.